Skills Development

Prior to working on living beings or attempting more complex procedures as in surgery, the student needs to develop fundamental dexterity or psychomotor skills. Inanimate objects provide a non-stressful, time-efficient and highly effective means of obtaining these skills. Some of these can also be considered as a means of surgical instruction and may be listed in that section. Following the list of specific alternatives, there is a section on literature that either explains or evaluates the alternatives or provides additional information on the subject of skills development.

If you are aware of other examples you believe to be important to include here, please send the information to HEVM for consideration.


New additions:

  1. Training method and other factors affecting student accuracy in bovine pregnancy diagnosis
  2. Surgical simulator design and development

Knot Tying Trainer

Limbs & Things PHaSES Knot Tying Trainer Limbs & Things PHaSES Knot Tying Trainer Limbs & Things PHaSES Knot Tying Trainer
    • From Website: A comprehensive trainer for teaching all surgical knot tying techniques…
    • Available from Limbs & Things.

Suture training pad

Veterinary Simulator Industries suture training pad

Skin Suture Pattern Simulator

Surgical Simulators Skin Suture Pattern Simulator

Skin Closure Simulator

Delletec Skin Closure Simulator

Premium 3-Layer Suture Patch

RescueCritters PREMIUM 3-Layer Suture Patch RescueCritters PREMIUM 3-Layer Suture Patch RescueCritters PREMIUM 3-Layer Suture Patch

Adjustable Tissue Tray Package

Simulab Adjustable Tissue Tray Package Simulab Adjustable Tissue Tray Package
    • For suturing skin incisions. The incision can be adjusted to create different degrees of tension.
    • Produced by Simulab Corporation.

Model – Suture Limb

Paws 2 Claws™ Model - Suture Limb Paws 2 Claws™ Model - Suture Limb Paws 2 Claws™ Model - Suture Limb
    • From Website: A great tool to learn or practice sutures on. One side includes a representation of a canine elbow bone.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Subcuticular Suturing Model

Simulab Subcuticular Suturing Model

Haemostasis Pad

RescueCritters Haemostasis Pad RescueCritters Haemostasis Pad RescueCritters Haemostasis Pad

5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad

SurgiReal 5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad SurgiReal 5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad SurgiReal 5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad
    • For hemostasis and suturing. This is one of several simulators for practicing suturing.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Hemostasis model

Model for hemostasis by Olsen et al, 1996 Model for hemostasis by Olsen et al, 1996 Model for hemostasis by Olsen et al, 1996
    • By Olsen et al, 1996: Results of this study indicate that the hemostasis model was as effective as live animals for teaching the basic skills involved in blood vessel ligation. The students’ opinions regarding the use of properly designed inanimate models for teaching these skills were dramatically changed.

Foam hemostasis model

Foam model for hemostasis by Smeak et al, 1991 Foam model for hemostasis by Smeak et al, 1991 Foam model for hemostasis by Smeak et al, 1991
    • By Smeak et al, 1991: Students using simulators performed ligation with significantly more accuracy and tended to be more expeditious at this task.

Hemostasis simulator

Laparotomy Model

Simulab Laparotomy Model Simulab Laparotomy Model Simulab Laparotomy Model
    • From Website: The laparotomy model simulates a partial abdomen and includes skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, preperitoneal fat, and peritoneum.
    • Produced by Simulab Corporation.

Hollow Organ Simulator

Surgical Simulators Hollow Organ Simulator

Small Intestine Simulator

SurgiReal Small Intestine Simulator
    • This is a small intestine simulator for the practice of end to end, side to side, end to side and functional end to end anastomotic techniques.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Double Layer Bowel 20mm Outside Diameter

Limbs & Things PHaSES Double Layer Bowel 20mm OD
    • From Website: Realistic two layer bowel simulation for training in anastomosis techniques. … Realistic tissue response … Will withstand a fluid flush test to demonstrate integrity of the anastomosis
    • Available from Limbs & Things.
    • You can borrow this from InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)

Double-layered Intestine

Simulab Double-layered Intestine
    • From Website: The Double-layered Intestine is a bowel section with two distinct layers for increased realism. Use this product to practice suturing, anastomosis, and stapling.
    • Produced by Simulab Corporation.

Vascular Access Training Models

Canine foreleg model

University of California canine foreleg access model

Canine head and foreleg model

University of California canine head access model

Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator

SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator
    • Vascular access simulator for the dog.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Horse jugular vein access model

Horse jugular vein access model Eichel et al 2013

Equine Vascular Access Simulator

SurgiReal Equine Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Equine Vascular Access Simulator
    • Vascular access simulator for the horse; jugular and facial arteries.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Equine phlebotomy and intramuscular injection simulator

Williamson et al equine phlebotomy and intramuscular injection simulator

Intravenous cannulation simulator

Intravenous cannulation simulator by Perez-Rivero and Rendón-Franco, 2011
    • Students using this easily made simulator showed more skill in cannulating the vein of a live animal than those not practicing on the simulator first, as reported by Perez-Rivero and Rendón-Franco, 2011.

Alpaca Venipuncture/Catheterization Model

Alpaca vascular access by Ben Kitchen, Alternavitae

Dog cadaver leg for venipuncture

Dog leg venipuncture setup by Galle and Bubna-Littitz, 1983
    • Galle and Bubna-Littitz, 1983 used a formalin-fixed front leg of a dog and replaced the cephalic vein with a silicon tube containing artificial blood. This was then used to teach students the art of venipuncture. With ethically-sourced cadavers, this could be an effective means of training.

Fine needle aspiration device

Fine needle aspiration device by Simpson and Meuten
    • Developed by Simpson and Meuten, 1992. This simple device, described in the publication, is used to contain fresh organ material (obtained from the necropsy lab) for teaching students the art of fine needle aspiration.

DASIE™ Dog Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercise

DASIE

Dog abdomen, ovariohysterectomy simulator

University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: abdominal wall University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: abdominal contents University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: reproductive tract
    • This appears to be an effective means of preparing the student for ovariohysterectomy in the living animal.
    • Developed by University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Sydney, Australia with Studio Kite; see news item or article by Woon, 2011 for more information.

TheMOOSE, ovariohysterectomy simulator

TheMOOSE spay model

Spay Training Manikin (ovariohysterectomy)

Vet Effects Spay Training Manikin Vet Effects Spay Training Manikin
    • From Website: The manikin allows the student to recreate a lifelike, step by step training, from incision to sutures.
    • Produced by Vet Effects Incorporated.

Manikin – Spay Dog (ovariohysterectomy)

Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog
    • From Website: The Spay Manikin was designed by Paws 2 Claws to be hands on training aid in learning the surgical procedures and techniques of spaying a dog, from intubation to the final sutures.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Neuter Training Manikin (castration)

Vet Effects Neuter Training Manikin Vet Effects Neuter Training Manikin
    • From Website: The manikin allows the student to recreate a lifelike, step by step training, from incision to sutures.
    • Produced by Vet Effects Incorporated.

Manikin – Neuter Dog (castration)

Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog
    • From Website: The Neuter Manikin was designed by Paws 2 Claws to be hands on training aid in learning the surgical procedures and techniques of neutering a dog, from intubation to the final sutures.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Various simulators at Utrecht University

Cat castration

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn cat castration simulator

Dog castration

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn pre-scrotal dog castration simulator

Tracheostomy

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn tracheostomy tube placement simulator

Venipuncture

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn venipuncture simulator

    • Drs van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn at Utrecht University have developed a psychomotor skills program which includes various skills models or simulators. Although the simulators may appear ‘primitive’, they should be useful in developing initial dexterity for a wide range of procedures including cat castration, pre-scrotal castration of the dog, tracheostomy tube placement, pedicle ligation in ovariohysterectomy, esophageal feeding tube placement, venipuncture, tumor excision.

K-9 Thoracentesis

RescueCritters K-9 Thoracentesis
    • From Website: …performing chest tube placements, and simulating emergency trauma by aspirating air and fluid from the thoracic cavity.
    • Produced by Rescue Critters!.

Training model for small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy

Thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy training model by Williamson, et al, 2014
    • By Williamson & Fio Rito, 2014: A small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy model has been developed, that allows repetitive practice in a safe, standardised environment. &#133 Student feedback indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the model and the laboratory experience, high perceived value of the case studies in improving learning, and increased confidence to perform the procedures under supervision. This model can replace the use of live animals while students are practising these procedures, improving their technique, and learning the appropriate safeguards used to prevent injuries such as pulmonary trauma.
    • See Williamson, 2014 for critical evaluation.

Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model

RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model

K-9 Intubation Trainer

RescueCritters K-9 Intubation Trainer RescueCritters K-9 Intubation Trainer
    • From Web site: Representations of the trachea, esophagus and epiglottis are all realistically crafted into this dog bust. It also features an airway with working lungs.
    • Produced by Rescue Critters!
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn, InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)

Advanced Sanitary CPR Dog

Nasco Advanced Sanitary CPR Dog

Critical Care Fluffy

RescueCritters Critical Care Fluffy

Critical Care Jerry

RescueCritters Critical Care Jerry

Low-fidelity canine models for intubation and urinary catheterization

Aulmann et al 2015 low fidelity canine models Aulmann et al 2015 low fidelity canine models

Human patient simulator

Use of human patient simulator by Modell et al, 2002
    • Modell et al, 2014 used a human patient simulator from CAE Healthcare to train veterinary medical students in anesthesia and complications that may occur. They concluded that …the human patient simulator was a valuable learning tool for students of veterinary medicine. It was exciting for the students to work with, made them deal with ‘real-life’ scenarios, permitted them to learn without subjecting live patients to complications, enabled them to retrace their steps when their therapy did not correct the simulated patient’s problems, and facilitated correlation of their basic science knowledge with clinical data, thus accelerating their ability to handle complex clinical problems in healthy and diseased patients.

Programmable dog simulator

Dog simulator by Daniel Fletcher Dog simulator by Daniel Fletcher

Flexible and Rigid Endoscopic training Device (FRED)

Whittemore Flexible and Rigid Endoscopic training Device (FRED) Whittemore Flexible and Rigid Endoscopic training Device (FRED)

Simuldog

Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014

Canine Laparoscopic Simulator

Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014

SynDaver Surgical Canine

SynDaver Surgical Canine
SynDaver Surgical Canine
  • From Web site: The SynDaver Synthetic Canine is a futuristic animal model designed to replace live animals and animal cadavers in veterinary surgical training. Based on 20+ years of SynDaver research, this model is made from water, fiber and salt. She is a life saver, but she is not alive. She breathes and bleeds just like a real dog. She has individual muscles, bones, and organs – and can be operated on repeatedly without risking a live animal.
  • Available from SynDaver Labs.

Joint Injection Simulator

Joint Injection Simulator Fox et al 2013

Cadaver model for arthrocentesis

    • Described and evaluated in MacIver and Johnson, 2015.

Canine pelvic limb model for stifle joint evaluation

Canine pelvic limb model by Troy and Bergh 2015 Canine pelvic limb model by Troy and Bergh 2015

Bovine rectal palpation simulator

Bovine rectal palpation simulator by Baillie et al 2005 Bovine rectal palpation simulator by Baillie et al 2005

Hereford Model Dystocia Simulator

Hereford Model Dystocia Simulator Veterinary Simulator Industries

Breed’n Betsy®

Breed'n Betsy used in Bossaert et al, 2009

Equine Palpation/Colic Simulator

Veterinary Simulator Industries Equine Palpation/Colic Simulator

Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator

Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator Crossan et al

Canine prostate palpation simulator

Male Urinary Catheter Training Manikin

Paws 2 Claws™ Male Urinary Catheter Training Manikin
    • From Website: This manikin was created to simulate the urinary catheterization procedure, along with collecting urine, emptying the bladder or taking urine samples.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.

Cysto Cat Manikin

Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin
    • From Website: This manikin is designed with an external and internal urogenital structure with the purpose of performing two separate procedures; cystocentesis and cystostomy.
    • There is also the Cysto Dog Manikin.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.

Dental model for training veterinary and veterinary nursing students

LIVE dental model LIVE dental model LIVE dental model
    • This is a being used at the Royal Veterinary College …to facilitate the teaching, learning and assessment of basic dental skills for veterinary nursing and veterinary medicine students.. An evaluation of it was reported by Lumbis et al, 2012.

Rabbit silicon ear

NPM SIKO Rabbit silicon ear NPM SIKO Rabbit silicon ear NPM SIKO Rabbit silicon ear
    • For intravascular access practice in the rabbit.
    • Produced by NPM SIKO.

Mimolette Lab Rat

RescueCritters Mimolette Lab Rat RescueCritters Mimolette Lab Rat RescueCritters Mimolette Lab Rat
    • For practicing endotracheal intubation, cardiac puncture, blood collection from the saphenous vein in the rat.
    • Produced by Rescue Critters!.

Koken Rat

Koken Rat
    • For practicing restraint, peroral dosing, intravenous vascular access through tail, endotracheal intubation in the rat.
    • You can borrow this from InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)
    • There is also purported to be a Koken Rabbit which is used for practicing restraint, peroral dosing, vascular access using the auricular vein, endotracheal intubation, urine collection through urethral catheterization. At this time, it does not appear to be listed on the company’s Web site.

Canine eye model for ophthalmoscopy

Nibblett et al 2015 canine fundoscopy model
    • Although ophthalmoscopy is not particularly invasive and student or staff companion animals can be used without any harm to them, this model may at least allow students to develop the psychomotor skills necessary without the added struggle of a moving “patient”.
    • Described and evaluated in Nibblett et al, 2015.

The following includes literature cited above or which is relevant to the development of various skills, including outcome assessment. The titles are linked either to a publicly available copy of the document or to a digital object identifier. In the latter case, information is provided about how to obtain a copy from other sources or from HEVM if to be used only for educational purposes.