If you are aware of other examples you believe to be important to include here, please send the information to HEVM for consideration.

The following includes literature which is relevant to the issue of physiology instruction. The titles are linked either to a publicly available copy of the document or to a digital object identifier. If there are illustrations which may be publicly viewable, these are also linked, but there is no guarantee that they would be viewable across all platforms.

Fawver, Amy L.; Branch, Charles E.; Trentham, Landa; Robertson, B.T. and Beckett, S.D. 1990 A comparison of interactive videodisc instruction with live animal laboratories The American Journal of Physiology 259(6):S11-S14

The authors (Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Education, Auburn, Alabama, United States) compared students learning cardiovascular physiology and fibrillation/positive pressure ventilation using traditional labs that used and killed animals versus an interactive videodisc-simulated lab. As of the time of the publication of this article, the program described was commercially available. One would need to find and contact one of the authors to get more information.

…the interactive videodisc-simulated lab was as effective as the traditional live-animal labs and was more time efficient than the traditional participation lab.

Hawkins, Eleanor C.; Hansen, Bernie and Bunch, Brenda L. 2003 Use of animation-enhanced video clips for teaching abnormal breathing patterns Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 30(1):73-77

The ABV [animated breathing pattern videotape] is a collection of video clips of small animal patients with normal and abnormal breathing patterns on a conventional videotape of approximately 20 minutes duration. Each video clip is shown for 20 to 40 seconds, followed by the same clip with superimposed animation of rib and diaphragm motion, followed by the initial clip again, without overlying animation.

Minekus, Mans; Marteau, Phillipe; Havenaar, Robert and Huis in ‘t Veld, Jos H.J. 1995 A multicompartmental dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the stomach and small intestine Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 23(2):197-209

Figure 1
Figure 1

Although this was intended to be used in a research setting, it could also be used for education.

A multicompartmental in vitro model has been described, which simulates the dynamic events occurring within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract of man and monogastric animals. … The model appeared to reproduce accurately the pre-set data on meal transit, pH and bile salt concentrations in the different gastrointestinal compartments. Glucose absorption from the small intestine was almost complete. This model reproduces very closely the dynamic conditions based on the in vivo situation in monogastric animals and man.

Updated 2023-12-18