Following the list of specific alternatives, there is a section on literature that either explains or evaluates the alternatives or provides additional information on the subject of anesthesia instruction.
If you are aware of other examples you believe to be important to include here, please send the information to HEVM for consideration.
- The effect of simulation training in anesthesia on student operational performance and patient safety
Human patient simulator
- Modell et al, 2014 used a human patient simulator from CAE Healthcare to train veterinary medical students in anesthesia and complications that may occur. They concluded that
…the human patient simulator was a valuable learning tool for students of veterinary medicine. It was exciting for the students to work with, made them deal with ‘real-life’ scenarios, permitted them to learn without subjecting live patients to complications, enabled them to retrace their steps when their therapy did not correct the simulated patient’s problems, and facilitated correlation of their basic science knowledge with clinical data, thus accelerating their ability to handle complex clinical problems in healthy and diseased patients.
- Developed by Dr. R.D. Keegan at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. The reactive computer simulation provides initial training that has been shown to prepare students for live animal experience better than traditional labs. You can contact Dr. Keegan directly for more information. He and his colleagues have published an evaluation report in Keegan et al, 2012.
The following includes literature cited above or which is relevant to training in anesthesia. The titles are linked either to a publicly available copy of the document or to a digital object identifier.
- Ertelt, Katrin; Turkovic, Veljko and Moens, Yves. 2016. “Clinical practice of epidural puncture in dogs and cats assisted by a commercial acoustic puncture assist device–epidural locator: preliminary results.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(1):21-25.
The study results showed that the APAD-EL information supports the subjective signs of correct needle placement suggested by positive POP and LOR experienced by trained anesthetists. The technique can be useful to assist difficult epidural puncture and as a training and teaching tool.
- Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate
- Freeman, Lynetta J.; Huse, David; Lee, Rebecca; Inoue, Tomo; Weil, Ann B. and Constable, Peter D. 2014. “Teaching veterinary anesthesia and surgery: The impact of instructor availability on anesthesia, operative, and recovery times in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy or castration.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 41(4):390-399.
Using dedicated instructors to teach OVH and castration to third-year veterinary students decreased overall anesthesia time by 36 to 49 minutes for OVH and 29 to 32 minutes for castration. A teaching model of dedicated instructors requires excellent coordination between surgeons and anesthesiologists to ensure that a similar number of animals can undergo procedures in the time allotted for teaching.
- Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate
- Jones, Jana L.; Rinehart, Jim; Spiegel, Jacqueline Jordan; Englar, Ryane E.; Sidaway, Brian K. and Rowles, Joie. 2018. “Teaching tip: Development of veterinary anesthesia simulations for pre-clinical training: Design, implementation, and evaluation based on student perspectives.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 45(2):232-240.
- Jones, Jana L.; Rinehart, Jim and Englar, Ryane E. 2019. “The effect of simulation training in anesthesia on student operational performance and patient safety.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 46(2):205-213.
Our findings suggest that students who were given the opportunity to participate in anesthesia-focused simulations before a live-animal anesthesia encounter demonstrated significant improvements in anesthesia operational performance and improved patient safety.
- Keegan, Robert; Henderson, Tom and Brown, Gary. 2009. “Use of the Virtual Ventilator, a screen-based computer simulation, to teach the principles of mechanical ventilation.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 36(4):436-443.
- Keegan, Robert D.; Brown, Gary R. and Gordon, Aifang. 2012. “Use of a simulation of the ventilator-patient interaction as an active learning exercise: Comparison with traditional lecture.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 39(4):359-367.
- Was not used as a replacement to a live animal lab, only to augment a traditional lecture-based program.
Examination scores and opinions from 41 students enrolled in the third year (fifth semester) of the professional veterinary program at Washington State University (WSU) were evaluated to determine the effectiveness and utility of the Virtual Ventilator ICU simulation prototype for teaching principles of mechanical ventilation.
Upper-ranking students who learned the clinical topic through the simulation scenarios outperformed students who learned by traditional lecture. In addition, upper-ranking students scored higher than lower-ranking students in both the clinical and long-term composite examinations.
- Modell, Jerome H.; Cantwell, Shauna; Hardcastle, John; Robertson, Sheilah and Pablo, Luisito. 2002. “Using the human patient simulator to educate students of veterinary medicine.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 29(2):111-116.
We conclude that the human patient simulator was a valuable learning tool for students of veterinary medicine. It was exciting for the students to work with this simulator, which made them deal with ‘real-life’ scenarios, permitted them to learn without subjecting live patients to complications, enabled them to retrace their steps when their therapy did not correct the simulated patient’s problems, and facilitated correlation of their basic science knowledge with clinical data, thus accelerating their ability to handle complex clinical problems in healthy and diseased patients.
- Musk, Gabrielle C.; Collins, Teresa and Hosgood, Giselle. 2017. “Teaching veterinary anesthesia: A survey-based evaluation of two high-fidelity models and live-animal experience for undergraduate veterinary students.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 44(4):590-602.
Veterinary students completed a series of four surveys over the period of their pre-clinical training to evaluate the usefulness of high-fidelity models for skill acquisition in endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization. … The curriculum during this period of training progressed from lectures and non-animal training, to anesthesia of pigs undergoing surgery from which they did not recover, and finally to anesthesia of dogs and cats in a neutering clinic. The level of confidence for each of the three clinical skills increased over the study period. … The high-fidelity models for endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization used to complement the live-animal teaching were considered a useful adjunct to the teaching of clinical skills in veterinary anesthesia.
- Wilson, D.V. and Sneed, S. 1992. “The use of interactive computer-based case simulations to teach veterinary anesthesia.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 19(4):164.
A number of interactive, problem-based anesthesia case simulations (ACS) were designed as part of the veterinary anesthesia course. The ACS cover a range of different disease syndromes, different species, and related anesthetic challenges including a dog with head trauma, a foal with a ruptured bladder, a horse with colic, and a Great Dane with bloat. Each case includes an introduction to an animal and its disease history, specific pathophysiology, and actual anesthetic techniques. A significant effort has been made in all of the cases to maintain participant interest with animation, graphics, and required interaction. These simulations allow the student to manage difficult cases [sic] and associated problems that may occur. The diagnostic and therapeutic choices help to develop problem-solving techniques and reinforce important facts to be retained. Poor case [sic] management is marked by patient death, arrhythmias, or other less than optimal outcomes. A good choice is usually followed by a good outcome, but in some instances another problem will develop despite the best of care, just as in real life. … Student performance in the final exam was equivalent to that of conventionally taught students from the previous year.