Skills Development

Prior to working on living beings or attempting more complex procedures as in surgery, the student needs to develop fundamental dexterity or psychomotor skills. Inanimate objects provide a non-stressful, time-efficient and highly effective means of obtaining these skills. Some of these can also be considered as a means of surgical instruction and may be listed in that section. Following the list of specific alternatives, there is a section on literature that either explains or evaluates the alternatives or provides additional information on the subject of skills development.

If you are aware of other examples you believe to be important to include here, please send the information to HEVM for consideration.


New additions:

A survey of established veterinary clinical skills laboratories from Europe and North America: Present practices and recent developments

Evaluation of a jugular venipuncture alpaca model to teach the technique of blood sampling in adult alpacas


Knot Tying Trainer

Limbs & Things PHaSES Knot Tying Trainer Limbs & Things PHaSES Knot Tying Trainer Limbs & Things PHaSES Knot Tying Trainer
    • From Website: A comprehensive trainer for teaching all surgical knot tying techniques…
    • Available from Limbs & Things.

Suture training pad

Veterinary Simulator Industries suture training pad

Skin Suture Pattern Simulator

Surgical Simulators Skin Suture Pattern Simulator

Skin Closure Simulator

Delletec Skin Closure Simulator

Premium 3-Layer Suture Patch

RescueCritters PREMIUM 3-Layer Suture Patch RescueCritters PREMIUM 3-Layer Suture Patch RescueCritters PREMIUM 3-Layer Suture Patch

Adjustable Tissue Tray Package

Simulab Adjustable Tissue Tray Package Simulab Adjustable Tissue Tray Package
    • For suturing skin incisions. The incision can be adjusted to create different degrees of tension.
    • Produced by Simulab Corporation.

Model – Suture Limb

Paws 2 Claws™ Model - Suture Limb Paws 2 Claws™ Model - Suture Limb Paws 2 Claws™ Model - Suture Limb
    • From Website: A great tool to learn or practice sutures on. One side includes a representation of a canine elbow bone.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Subcuticular Suturing Model

Simulab Subcuticular Suturing Model

Haemostasis Pad

RescueCritters Haemostasis Pad RescueCritters Haemostasis Pad RescueCritters Haemostasis Pad

5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad

SurgiReal 5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad SurgiReal 5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad SurgiReal 5-layer RealLayer RealFlow Simulated Tissue Pad
    • For hemostasis and suturing. This is one of several simulators for practicing suturing.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Hemostasis model

Model for hemostasis by Olsen et al, 1996 Model for hemostasis by Olsen et al, 1996 Model for hemostasis by Olsen et al, 1996
    • By Olsen et al, 1996: Results of this study indicate that the hemostasis model was as effective as live animals for teaching the basic skills involved in blood vessel ligation. The students’ opinions regarding the use of properly designed inanimate models for teaching these skills were dramatically changed.

Foam hemostasis model

Foam model for hemostasis by Smeak et al, 1991 Foam model for hemostasis by Smeak et al, 1991 Foam model for hemostasis by Smeak et al, 1991
    • By Smeak et al, 1991: Students using simulators performed ligation with significantly more accuracy and tended to be more expeditious at this task.

Hemostasis simulator

Laparotomy Model

Simulab Laparotomy Model Simulab Laparotomy Model Simulab Laparotomy Model
    • From Website: The laparotomy model simulates a partial abdomen and includes skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, preperitoneal fat, and peritoneum.
    • Produced by Simulab Corporation.

Hollow Organ Simulator

Surgical Simulators Hollow Organ Simulator

Small Intestine Simulator

SurgiReal Small Intestine Simulator
    • This is a small intestine simulator for the practice of end to end, side to side, end to side and functional end to end anastomotic techniques.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Double Layer Bowel 20mm Outside Diameter

Limbs & Things PHaSES Double Layer Bowel 20mm OD
    • From Website: Realistic two layer bowel simulation for training in anastomosis techniques. … Realistic tissue response … Will withstand a fluid flush test to demonstrate integrity of the anastomosis
    • Available from Limbs & Things.
    • You can borrow this from InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)

Double-layered Intestine

Simulab Double-layered Intestine
    • From Website: The Double-layered Intestine is a bowel section with two distinct layers for increased realism. Use this product to practice suturing, anastomosis, and stapling.
    • Produced by Simulab Corporation.

Vascular Access Training Models

Canine foreleg model

University of California canine foreleg access model

Canine head and foreleg model

University of California canine head access model

Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator

SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Canine Leg Vascular Access Simulator
    • Vascular access simulator for the dog.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Horse jugular vein access model

Horse jugular vein access model Eichel et al 2013

Equine Vascular Access Simulator

SurgiReal Equine Vascular Access Simulator SurgiReal Equine Vascular Access Simulator
    • Vascular access simulator for the horse; jugular and facial arteries.
    • Produced by SurgiReal.

Equine phlebotomy and intramuscular injection simulator

Williamson et al equine phlebotomy and intramuscular injection simulator

Intravenous cannulation simulator

Intravenous cannulation simulator by Perez-Rivero and Rendón-Franco, 2011
    • Students using this easily made simulator showed more skill in cannulating the vein of a live animal than those not practicing on the simulator first, as reported by Perez-Rivero and Rendón-Franco, 2011.

Alpaca Venipuncture/Catheterization Model

Alpaca vascular access by Ben Kitchen, Alternavitae

Dog cadaver leg for venipuncture

Dog leg venipuncture setup by Galle and Bubna-Littitz, 1983
    • Galle and Bubna-Littitz, 1983 used a formalin-fixed front leg of a dog and replaced the cephalic vein with a silicon tube containing artificial blood. This was then used to teach students the art of venipuncture. With ethically-sourced cadavers, this could be an effective means of training.

Fine needle aspiration device

Fine needle aspiration device by Simpson and Meuten
    • Developed by Simpson and Meuten, 1992. This simple device, described in the publication, is used to contain fresh organ material (obtained from the necropsy lab) for teaching students the art of fine needle aspiration.

DASIE™ Dog Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercise

DASIE

Dog abdomen, ovariohysterectomy simulator

University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: abdominal wall University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: abdominal contents University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: reproductive tract
    • This appears to be an effective means of preparing the student for ovariohysterectomy in the living animal.
    • Developed by University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Sydney, Australia with Studio Kite; see news item or article by Woon, 2011 for more information.

TheMOOSE, ovariohysterectomy simulator

TheMOOSE spay model

Spay Training Manikin (ovariohysterectomy)

Vet Effects Spay Training Manikin Vet Effects Spay Training Manikin
    • From Website: The manikin allows the student to recreate a lifelike, step by step training, from incision to sutures.
    • Produced by Vet Effects Incorporated.

Manikin – Spay Dog (ovariohysterectomy)

Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog
    • From Website: The Spay Manikin was designed by Paws 2 Claws to be hands on training aid in learning the surgical procedures and techniques of spaying a dog, from intubation to the final sutures.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Neuter Training Manikin (castration)

Vet Effects Neuter Training Manikin Vet Effects Neuter Training Manikin
    • From Website: The manikin allows the student to recreate a lifelike, step by step training, from incision to sutures.
    • Produced by Vet Effects Incorporated.

Manikin – Neuter Dog (castration)

Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog
    • From Website: The Neuter Manikin was designed by Paws 2 Claws to be hands on training aid in learning the surgical procedures and techniques of neutering a dog, from intubation to the final sutures.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Various simulators at Utrecht University

Cat castration

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn cat castration simulator

Dog castration

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn pre-scrotal dog castration simulator

Tracheostomy

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn tracheostomy tube placement simulator

Venipuncture

van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn venipuncture simulator

    • Drs van Nimwegen and Kirpensteijn at Utrecht University have developed a psychomotor skills program which includes various skills models or simulators. Although the simulators may appear ‘primitive’, they should be useful in developing initial dexterity for a wide range of procedures including cat castration, pre-scrotal castration of the dog, tracheostomy tube placement, pedicle ligation in ovariohysterectomy, esophageal feeding tube placement, venipuncture, tumor excision.

K-9 Thoracentesis

RescueCritters K-9 Thoracentesis
    • From Website: …performing chest tube placements, and simulating emergency trauma by aspirating air and fluid from the thoracic cavity.
    • Produced by Rescue Critters!.

Training model for small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy

Thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy training model by Williamson, et al, 2014
    • By Williamson & Fio Rito, 2014: A small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy model has been developed, that allows repetitive practice in a safe, standardised environment. &#133 Student feedback indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the model and the laboratory experience, high perceived value of the case studies in improving learning, and increased confidence to perform the procedures under supervision. This model can replace the use of live animals while students are practising these procedures, improving their technique, and learning the appropriate safeguards used to prevent injuries such as pulmonary trauma.
    • See Williamson, 2014 for critical evaluation.

Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model

RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model

K-9 Intubation Trainer

RescueCritters K-9 Intubation Trainer RescueCritters K-9 Intubation Trainer
    • From Web site: Representations of the trachea, esophagus and epiglottis are all realistically crafted into this dog bust. It also features an airway with working lungs.
    • Produced by Rescue Critters!
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn, InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)

Advanced Sanitary CPR Dog

Nasco Advanced Sanitary CPR Dog

Critical Care Fluffy

RescueCritters Critical Care Fluffy

Critical Care Jerry

RescueCritters Critical Care Jerry

Low-fidelity canine models for intubation and urinary catheterization

Aulmann et al 2015 low fidelity canine models Aulmann et al 2015 low fidelity canine models

Human patient simulator

Use of human patient simulator by Modell et al, 2002
    • Modell et al, 2014 used a human patient simulator from CAE Healthcare to train veterinary medical students in anesthesia and complications that may occur. They concluded that …the human patient simulator was a valuable learning tool for students of veterinary medicine. It was exciting for the students to work with, made them deal with ‘real-life’ scenarios, permitted them to learn without subjecting live patients to complications, enabled them to retrace their steps when their therapy did not correct the simulated patient’s problems, and facilitated correlation of their basic science knowledge with clinical data, thus accelerating their ability to handle complex clinical problems in healthy and diseased patients.

Programmable dog simulator

Dog simulator by Daniel Fletcher Dog simulator by Daniel Fletcher

Flexible and Rigid Endoscopic training Device (FRED)

Whittemore Flexible and Rigid Endoscopic training Device (FRED) Whittemore Flexible and Rigid Endoscopic training Device (FRED)

Simuldog

Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014

Canine Laparoscopic Simulator

Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014

SynDaver Surgical Canine

SynDaver Surgical Canine
SynDaver Surgical Canine
  • From Web site: The SynDaver Synthetic Canine is a futuristic animal model designed to replace live animals and animal cadavers in veterinary surgical training. Based on 20+ years of SynDaver research, this model is made from water, fiber and salt. She is a life saver, but she is not alive. She breathes and bleeds just like a real dog. She has individual muscles, bones, and organs – and can be operated on repeatedly without risking a live animal.
  • Available from SynDaver Labs.

Joint Injection Simulator

Joint Injection Simulator Fox et al 2013

Cadaver model for arthrocentesis

    • Described and evaluated in MacIver and Johnson, 2015.

Canine pelvic limb model for stifle joint evaluation

Canine pelvic limb model by Troy and Bergh 2015 Canine pelvic limb model by Troy and Bergh 2015

Bovine rectal palpation simulator

Bovine rectal palpation simulator by Baillie et al 2005 Bovine rectal palpation simulator by Baillie et al 2005

Hereford Model Dystocia Simulator

Hereford Model Dystocia Simulator Veterinary Simulator Industries

Breed’n Betsy®

Breed'n Betsy used in Bossaert et al, 2009

Equine Palpation/Colic Simulator

Veterinary Simulator Industries Equine Palpation/Colic Simulator

Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator

Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator Crossan et al

Canine prostate palpation simulator

Male Urinary Catheter Training Manikin

Paws 2 Claws™ Male Urinary Catheter Training Manikin
    • From Website: This manikin was created to simulate the urinary catheterization procedure, along with collecting urine, emptying the bladder or taking urine samples.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.

Cysto Cat Manikin

Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin Paws 2 Claws™ Cysto Cat Manikin
    • From Website: This manikin is designed with an external and internal urogenital structure with the purpose of performing two separate procedures; cystocentesis and cystostomy.
    • There is also the Cysto Dog Manikin.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.

Dental model for training veterinary and veterinary nursing students

LIVE dental model LIVE dental model LIVE dental model
    • This is a being used at the Royal Veterinary College …to facilitate the teaching, learning and assessment of basic dental skills for veterinary nursing and veterinary medicine students.. An evaluation of it was reported by Lumbis et al, 2012.

Rabbit silicon ear

NPM SIKO Rabbit silicon ear NPM SIKO Rabbit silicon ear NPM SIKO Rabbit silicon ear
    • For intravascular access practice in the rabbit.
    • Produced by NPM SIKO.

Mimolette Lab Rat

RescueCritters Mimolette Lab Rat RescueCritters Mimolette Lab Rat RescueCritters Mimolette Lab Rat
    • For practicing endotracheal intubation, cardiac puncture, blood collection from the saphenous vein in the rat.
    • Produced by Rescue Critters!.

Koken Rat

Koken Rat
    • For practicing restraint, peroral dosing, intravenous vascular access through tail, endotracheal intubation in the rat.
    • You can borrow this from InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)
    • There is also purported to be a Koken Rabbit which is used for practicing restraint, peroral dosing, vascular access using the auricular vein, endotracheal intubation, urine collection through urethral catheterization. At this time, it does not appear to be listed on the company’s Web site.

Canine eye model for ophthalmoscopy

Nibblett et al 2015 canine fundoscopy model
    • Although ophthalmoscopy is not particularly invasive and student or staff companion animals can be used without any harm to them, this model may at least allow students to develop the psychomotor skills necessary without the added struggle of a moving “patient”.
    • Described and evaluated in Nibblett et al, 2015.

The following includes literature cited above or which is relevant to the development of various skills, including outcome assessment. The titles are linked either to a publicly available copy of the document or to a digital object identifier. In the latter case, information is provided about how to obtain a copy from other sources or from HEVM if to be used only for educational purposes.

    • Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Naylor, Jonathan M.; Parchoma, Gale; D’Eon, Marcel; Petrie, Lyall and Carruthers, Terry. 2006. “Evaluation of traditional instruction versus a self-learning computer module in teaching veterinary students how to pass a nasogastric tube in the horse.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 33(3):447-454.
      • Conclusion – computer-assisted learning is an acceptable and effective method of training students to pass an NG tube with potential welfare, proficiency, and knowledge advantages.
    • Allen, S.W. and Chambers, J.N. 1997. “Computer-assisted instruction of fundamental surgical motor skills.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 24(1):2-5.
      • A computer-assisted learning program, ‘The Surgical Techniques Auto-Tutorial Program,’ was developed for use as an introductory training tool of fundamental surgical motor skills. The program was well received by veterinary medical students. Although computer-assisted instruction was as effective as traditional methods in helping students develop and retain some skill, direct instructor contact was necessary for the retention of other stills such as knot tying. When followed by instructor contact laboratories, allowing feedback and reinforcement of operative skills, computer-assisted instruction was a helpful introductory training tool for the development of fundamental surgical motor skills.
    • Auer, Jörg Andreas. 1994. “Veterinär-Chirurgische Ausbildung am Simulator.” ALTEX 11(1):44-46.
      • Discusses the use of simulators for development of basic surgical skills at the Veterinary Surgery Clinic of the University of Zürich. In German with an English summary.
      • Aulmann, Maria; März, Maren; Burgener, Iwan A.; Alef, Michaele; Otto, Sven and Mülling, Christoph K.W. 2015. “Development and evaluation of two canine low-fidelity simulation models.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 42(2):151-160.
        • We thereby conclude that low-fidelity models can be as effective as high-fidelity models for clinical skills training.
    • Baillie, S. undated “Utilization of simulators in veterinary training“. 1-15 pp.
    • Baillie, Sarah; Mellor, Dominic J.; Brewster, Stephen A. and Reid, Stuart W.J. 2005. “Integrating a bovine rectal palpation simulator into an undergraduate veterinary curriculum.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 32(1):79-85.
    • Baillie, Sarah; Crossan, Andrew; Brewster, Stephen; Mellor, Dominic and Reid, Stuart. 2005. “Validation of a bovine rectal palpation simulator for training veterinary students.” Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 111:33-36.
      • The subsequent performance in the real task, when examining cows for the first time, was assessed with the results showing a significantly better performance for the simulator group.
    • Baillie, Sarah; Crossan, Andrew; Brewster, Stephen A.; May, Stephen A. and Mellor, Dominic J. 2010. “Evaluating an automated haptic simulator designed for veterinary students to learn bovine rectal palpation.” Simulation in Healthcare 5(5):261-266.
      • The automated simulator equipped students with useful skills for examining cows. In addition, a simulator that does not need the presence of an instructor will increase the availability of training for students and be a more sustainable option for institutions.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Ball, Leslie and Scott, James A. 1964. “An artificial uterus for laboratory instruction.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 144(3):264-265.
      • Describes a model which can be built to teach palpation in the cow.
    • Bogert, K.; Platt, Simon; Haley, Allison; Kent, Marc; Edwards, Gaylen; Dookwah, H. and Johnsen, Kyle. 2016. “Development and use of an interactive computerized dog model to evaluate cranial nerve knowledge in veterinary students.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(1):26-32.
      • …we have developed a computerized simulated dog head that can exhibit cranial nerve dysfunctions and respond to specific testing procedures in a clinically accurate manner. … In an experiment conducted with 97 freshman veterinary students who had recently been taught cranial nerve anatomy and function, we found that examination performance decreased with the need for interactivity compared to memorization of fact, while satisfaction increased. Students were less likely to identify the correct disorder when they had to conduct the examination of the virtual dog themselves, revealing an inadequacy in traditional neuroanatomical teaching. However, students overwhelmingly supported the use of interactive question for assessment. Interestingly, performance on text-based questions did not correlate significantly with interactive or video questions. The results have implications for veterinary teaching and assessment within the classroom and in clinical environments.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Bossaert, Philippe; Leterme, Lieselot; Caluwaerts, Tim; Cools, Steven; Hostens, Miel; Kolkman, Iris and de Kruif, Aart. 2009. “Teaching transrectal palpation of the internal genital organs in cattle.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 36(4):451-460.
      • Results suggest that Breed’n Betsy cannot fully replace training in live cows, but may be a valuable addition to the classical teaching method. Suggestions for future improvement are made.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Burns, Jeffrey P.; Reardon, Frank E. and Truog, Robert D. 1994. “Using newly deceased patients to teach resuscitation procedures.” The New England Journal of Medicine 331(24):1652-1655.
      • The authors discuss the ethical and legal aspects of this situation, and offer criteria for keeping it a legitimate form of training for the benefit of human society. There is no reason why similar principles could not be applied in veterinary medicine with respect to using new deceased patients for training purposes.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Capilé, Karynn V.; Campos, Gabriela M.B.; Stedile, Rafael and Oliveira, Simone T. 2015. “Canine prostate palpation simulator as a teaching tool in veterinary education.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 42(2):146-150.
      • …our aim was to develop a canine prostate palpation simulator to provide students with the opportunity to learn the prostate palpation technique in dogs and to assess their opinion of this simulator as a teaching tool. The inner part of the canine mannequin contains a rotation system with three types of prostates that can be exchanged during the exam. … We conclude that the simulator can help students to develop clinical skills for prostate palpation in dogs.
    • Carroll, Hillary S.; Lucia, Tomasina A.; Farnsworth, Chelsea H.; Hinckley, Michael M.; Zeugschmidt, Eryn L. and Cary, Julie A. 2016. “Development of an optional clinical skills laboratory for surgical skills training of veterinary students.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 248(6):624-628.
      • During each OCSL session, a variety of surgical training models and cadavers were available for students to practice with. Simple models for students to practice suturing, pedicle ligation, and IV catheter placement were made from surplus hospital stock and inexpensive materials readily available from hardware and craft stores. In addition, 5 to 7 whole or prosected cadavers were typically available for student use during each session. Large animal cadavers were primarily obtained through donation to the veterinary teaching hospital. Canine and feline cadavers were obtained through the CVM’s contract with animal control agencies in Washington state under which animals judged to be unadoptable by individual animal control agencies were euthanized at the agencies in accordance with AVMA and institutional animal care and use guidelines and transported to WSU CVM fresh-frozen. Fresh cadavers from other teaching laboratories were also used when available. All cadaver use adhered to AVMA and institutional animal care and use guidelines for humane use of animals. No animals were euthanized specifically for use in the OCSL.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Crossan, Andrew; Brewster, Stephen; Reid, Stuart and Mellor, Dominic. “Comparison of simulated ovary palpation training over different skill levels.” 1-5 pp. University of Glasgow.
      • This paper describes an initial attempt to compare performance levels of users of different skill levels on the Glasgow Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator (HOPS).
    • Dilly, Marc; Read, Emma K. and Baillie, Sarah. 2017. “A survey of established veterinary clinical skills laboratories from Europe and North America: Present practices and recent developments.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 44(4):580-589.
      • The findings indicated that having a dedicated veterinary clinical skills laboratory is a relatively new initiative and that colleges have adopted a range of approaches to implementing and running the laboratory, teaching, and assessments. Major strengths were the motivation and positive characteristics of the staff involved, providing open access and supporting self-directed learning. … There is no doubt that veterinary clinical skills laboratories are on the increase and provide opportunities to enhance student learning, complement traditional training, and benefit animal welfare.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Eichel, Jane-Carolin; Korb, Werner; Schlenker, Antje; Bausch, Gerold; Brehm, Walter and Delling, Uta. 2013. “Evaluation of a training model to teach veterinary students a technique for injecting the jugular vein in horses.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 40(3):288-295.
      • The training model proved to be a useful tool to teach veterinary students how to perform jugular vein injections in horses in a controlled environment, without time limitations or animal welfare concerns. The newly developed training model offers an inexpensive, efficient, animal-sparing way to teach this clinical skill to veterinary students.
    • Ertelt, Katrin; Turkovic, Veljko and Moens, Yves. 2016. “Clinical practice of epidural puncture in dogs and cats assisted by a commercial acoustic puncture assist device–epidural locator: preliminary results.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(1):21-25.
      • The study results showed that the APAD-EL information supports the subjective signs of correct needle placement suggested by positive POP and LOR experienced by trained anesthetists. The technique can be useful to assist difficult epidural puncture and as a training and teaching tool.
    • Fahie, Maria; Cloke, Amanda; Lagman, Minette; Levi, Ohad and Schmidt, Peggy. 2016. “Training veterinary students to perform ovariectomy using theMOOSE Spay Model with traditional method versus the Dowling Spay Retractor.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(2):176-183.
      • This study endeavored to compare two methods of teaching OVE on a model based on assessment of procedure time and skill performance scores.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Fletcher, Daniel J.; Militello, Roberta; Schoeffler, Gretchen L. and Rogers, Catherine L. 2012. “Development and evaluation of a high-fidelity canine patient simulator for veterinary clinical training.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 39(1):7-12.
    • Fox, Victoria; Sinclair, Charlotte; Bolt, David M.; Lowe, John and Weller, Renate. 2013. “Design and validation of a simulator for equine joint injections.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 40(2):152-157.
      • The joint injection simulator represents an affordable teaching aid that allows students to repeatedly practice this skill in their own time with immediate feedback.
    • Galle, Ursula and Bubna-Littitz, H. 1983. “Modell zum Erlernen der Venenpunktionstechnik beim Hund.” Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine 30(9):796-799.
      • In German with English (and other language) summary.
    • Giusto, Gessica; Comino, Francesco and Gandini, Marco. 2015. “Validation of an effective, easy-to-make hemostasis simulator.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 42(1):85-88.
      • After adequate training, students’ skills had significantly improved, alongside their confidence in placing hemostatic sutures. This proves our model is also useful in teaching basic open-surgery skills. Finally, its low production cost makes it ideally suited for self-practice.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Hansen, Bernie D. 2003. “An alternative model for teaching emergency procedures.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 30(3):227-230.
      • Our innovative emergency-procedures laboratory enables students to acquire a high degree of proficiency, in a realistic setting, with focused, controlled instruction and practice, replicable in schools with or without emergency/critical care facilities.
    • Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Nikendei, Christoph; Keifenheim, Katharina; Bosse, Hans Martin; Lund, Frederike; Wagner, Robert; Celebi, Nora; Zipfel, Stephan and Weyrich, Peter. 2013. ““Best Practice” Skills Lab Training vs. a “see one, do one” approach in undergraduate medical education: An RCT on students’ long-term ability to perform procedural clinical skills.” PLoS One 8(9):e76354.
      • Although the study was done on students in human medical school, the principles would apply to veterinary medical students.
    • Holmberg, D.L.; Cockshutt, J.R. and Basher, A.W.P. 1993. “Use of a dog abdominal surrogate for teaching surgery.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 20(2):61-62.
    • Johnson, Matthew D.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; MacIver, Melissa A. and Su, Yu. 2016. “Assessing the effectiveness of a cadaveric teaching model for performing arthrocentesis with veterinary students.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(1):88-94.
      • The purpose of this study was to determine if a recently developed cadaveric canine model was an effective tool for teaching arthrocentesis to fourth-year veterinary students. … In both phases of the study, the participants were able to aspirate a measurable volume of fluid from the joints of the model. Participants recorded an increase in confidence with arthrocentesis after using the model in the first phase of the study and unanimously supported inclusion of the exercise in future teaching situations.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Kilkenny, Jessica J.; Singh, Ameet; Kerr, Carolyn L.; Khosa, Deep K. and Fransson, Boel A.. 2017-06-01. “Factors associated with simulator-assessed laparoscopic surgical skills of veterinary students.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 250(11):1308-1315.
    • Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil David; Frean, Stephen Philip and Baillie, Sarah. 2009. “Teaching bovine abdominal anatomy: Use of a haptic simulator.” Anatomical Sciences Education 2(6):280-285.
      • The findings indicate that the haptic simulator is an engaging way of teaching bovine abdominal anatomy to a large number of students in an efficient manner without using cadavers, thereby addressing some of the current challenges in anatomy teaching.
    • Kneebone, Roger and ApSimon, David. 2001-09-01. “Surgical skills training: simulation and multimedia combined.” Medical Education 35(9):909-915.
      • This paper presents a new approach to basic surgical skills training, where tuition using a specially designed computer program is combined with structured practice using simulated tissue models. This approach to teaching has evolved from practical experience with surgical skills training in workshops. … Qualitative analysis of observational and interview data provides strong preliminary support for the effectiveness of this approach.
      • Although this involves training in human medical school, the principles are applicable to veterinary medical school.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Langebæk, R.; Berendt, M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Jensen, A.L. and Eika, B. 2012. “Features that contribute to the usefulness of low-fidelity models for surgical skills training.” The Veterinary Record 170(14):361.
      • In conclusion, low-fidelity models are useful educational tools in preparation for live animal surgery. However, there are specific features to take into account when developing models in order for students to perceive them as useful.
    • Lencioni, Rachael D.; Ragle, Claude A.; Kinser, Mathew L.; Coffey, Todd and Fransson, Boel A. 2017. “Effect of simulator orientation during skills training on performance of basic laparoscopic tasks by veterinary students.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251(10):1196-1201.
      • Because veterinary surgeons may be required to treat patients in various positions, development of laparoscopic training models to simulate the vertical plane is recommended.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Lumbis, Rachel H.; Gregory, Susan P. and Baillie, Sarah. 2012. “Evaluation of a dental model for training veterinary students.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 39(2):128-135.
      • All students identified a model as a potentially valuable learning tool to supplement existing teaching methods and facilitate the acquisition of small-animal dentistry skills. The dental model has the potential to equip students with useful, practical skills in a safe and risk-free environment.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • MacIver, Melissa A. and Johnson, Matthew. 2015. “Development of a cadaveric model for arthrocentesis.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 42(2):140-145.
      • This article reports the development of a novel cadaveric model for future use in teaching arthrocentesis. … Objectives of the study were to develop and compare a model to an unmodified cadaver by injecting one of two types of fluids to increase yield.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Modell, Jerome H.; Cantwell, Shauna; Hardcastle, John; Robertson, Sheilah and Pablo, Luisito. 2002. “Using the human patient simulator to educate students of veterinary medicine.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 29(2):111-116.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Neimkin, Ronald J.; Barrett, G.R. and Meyer, Leslie C. 1983. “Foam bones: Experimental teaching aid.” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 180:310-312.
      • Describes in detail the technique of fabricating polyurethane ‘bones’ and advocates them as an inexpensive means of teaching surgical skills. Human bones from cadavers are used as templates for the mold. Although the artificial bones can be obtained commercially, the authors contend that they are cheaper and more instructive when made by staff members.
    • Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Williamson, Julie A. and Sithole, Fortune. 2015. “Validation of a model for teaching canine fundoscopy.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 42(2):133-139.
    • Olsen, Dennis; Bauer, Michael S.; Seim, Howard B. and Salman, Mowafak D. 1996. “Evaluation of a hemostasis model for teaching basic surgical skills.” Veterinary Surgery 25(1):49-58.
    • Parkes, Rebecca; Forrest, Neil and Baillie, Sarah. 2009. “A mixed reality simulator for feline abdominal palpation training in veterinary medicine.” Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 142:244-246.
    • Perez-Rivero, Juan J. and Rendón-Franco, Emilio. 2011. “Validation of the educational potential of a simulator to develop abilities and skills for the creation and maintenance of an intravenous cannula.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 39(3):257-260.
    • Rayan, Ghazi M. and Yngve, David. 1987. “Tendon substitute for psychomotor skill laboratory training.” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 79(2):314.
      • They used polyethylene foam strip to simulate a tendon.
    • Razavi, Seyyed M.; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Khahi, Mahdi Panah; Dabiran, Soheila; Asefi, Sara; Shahrak, Ghamar H. Zaker and Afrooz, Ali R. Bad. 2010. “Station-based deconstructed training model for teaching procedural skills to medical students: a quasi-experimental study.” Advances in Medical Education and Practice 1:17-23.
      • This study suggests that deconstructing the practical skills into microskills and tuition of those microskills via the separated structured educational stations is effective according to the students’ self-ratings.

    Updated 2017-12-07