Residency Training

Many veterinary residency programs, where individuals get advanced training in a particular discipline, use and kill animals. The following list provides just a few examples of humane methods that could be used instead. If you are aware of other examples you believe to be important to include here, please send the information to HEVM for consideration.

Vascular Anastomosis Model

3-Dmed&;reg; Vascular Anastomosis Model 3-Dmed&;reg; Vascular Anastomosis Model
      • From Website: The LifeLike BioTissue vascular anastomosis model feels, sutures and behaves like real live tissue. Realistic and affordable products designed for the acquisition, practice and retention of vascular surgery skills.
      • Available from 3-Dmed®.

MD PVC-Rat

Microsurgical Developments Foundation PVC-Rat
      • From Website: The Microsurgical Developments PVC-Rat
        is developed to master skills in microsurgery
        and is an example of the replacement of living animals, one of the main goals of our foundation. … Examples are anastomoses (end-to-end, end-to-side), cannulations and transplantations of vessels and organs.
      • Available from Microsurgical Developments Foundation.
      • You can borrow this from InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)

EDGE (Electronic Data Generation for Evaluation)

Simulab EDGE
      • From Website: Using laparoscopic instruments integrated with six sensors, EDGE measures the time for each exercise, path, rotation, and force of the instruments. Results are based on actual haptics, providing quantifiable results to its users.
      • Available from Simulab Corporation.

EndoUro-Trainer

Samed Dresden EndoUro-Trainer Typ LS 50
      • From Website: The EndoUro-Trainer enables it a realistic learning, training and presenting a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic tasks in the field of kidney-ureter-bladder.
      • Available from Samed GmbH Dresden.

AccuTouch® Flexible Bronchoscopy Simulator

AccuTouch Flexible Bronchoscopy Simulator, Immersion Medical, Ost et al 2001
      • Its use and evaluation were reported by Ost et al, 2001. Although was used in advanced human medical training, the same principles could be applied to veterinary medical residency training.
      • Was produced by Immersion Corporation, but currently not listed specifically on their Web site.

PreOp Endoscopy Simulator

PreOp Endoscopy Simulator, Colt et al, 2001
      • Its use and evaluation were reported by Colt et al, 2001. Although was used in advanced human medical training, the same principles could be applied to veterinary medical residency training.

Simuldog

Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Simuldog Usón-Gargallo et al 2014

Canine Laparoscopic Simulator

Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014 Canine Laparoscopic Simulator Usón-Gargallo et al 2014

LapSim® Laparoscopic Trainer

Limbs & LapSim® Laparoscopic Trainer Limbs & LapSim® Laparoscopic Trainer Limbs & LapSim® Laparoscopic Trainer
      • From Website: Virtual reality simulation has shown to deliver a fast and foremost a patient‐safe path to technical competence in the operating room.

Pulsating Organ Perfusion Trainer

Optimist Pulsating Organ Perfusion Trainer Optimist Pulsating Organ Perfusion Trainer
      • Although animal organs are an intended part of the system, these could be ethically-sourced to make this a very effective means of laparoscopy training.
      • An evaluation of this system was reported by Szinicz et al, 1994.
      • Produced by Optimist GmbH.
      • You can borrow this from InterNICHE (follow instructions on their loan page)

Phantom pig abdomen

Phantom pig abdomen Ristolainen et al 2013 Phantom pig abdomen Ristolainen et al 2013

The following includes literature cited above or which is relevant to residency level training. The titles are linked either to a publicly available copy of the document or to a digital object identifier. In the latter case, information is provided about how to obtain a copy from other sources or from HEVM if to be used only for educational purposes.

    • Arentsen, Juan and Duran, Mario. 1976. “Stereotaxic device for experimental eye surgery.” Investigative Ophthalmology 15(1):34-36.
      • The device is used to stabilize enucleated eyes. This could be applied to veterinary medical training, as well.
    • Colt, Henri G.; Crawford, Stephen W. and Galbraith, Oliver. 2001. “Virtual reality bronchoscopy simulation: A revolution in procedural training.” Chest 120(4):1333-1339.
      • A short, focused course of instruction and unsupervised practice using a virtual bronchoscopy simulator enabled novice trainees to attain a level of manual and technical skill at performing diagnostic bronchoscopic inspection similar to those of colleagues with several years of experience. These skills were readily reproducible in a conventional inanimate airway-training model, suggesting they would also be translatable to direct patient care.
    • Constantian, M.B.; Ehrenpreis. C. and Sheen, J.H. 1987. “The expert teaching system: a new method for learning rhinoplasty using interactive computer graphics.” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 79(2):278-283.
      • We have developed software that employs interactive computer graphics to simulate the surgical experience of rhinoplasty by allowing the surgeon to experiment within a model of nasal behavior. … We believe that the ability to experiment without risk, to safely learn the biological laws governing nasal behavior, should augment the development of surgical judgement in rhinoplasty.
    • Greenhalgh, R.M.; Eastcott, H.H.; Mansfield, A.O. and Taylor, D.E. 1987. “Aneurysm jig for anastomosis technique.” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 69(5):199-200.
    • Hikichi, Taiichi; Yoshida, Akitoshi; Igarashi, Syo; Mukai, Nobuhiko; Harada, Masayuki; Muroi, Katsunobu and Terada, Takafumi. 2000. “Vitreous surgery simulator.” Archives of Ophthalmology 118(12):1679-1681.
    • Jabbour, Noel; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert M. and Sidman, James D. 2011. “Psychomotor skills training in pediatric airway endoscopy simulation.” Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery 145(1):43-50.
      • Simulation-based subtask training shows promise as an effective and reproducible method to teach the complex psychomotor task of airway foreign body retrieval. Completion of the curriculum led to a significant improvement in residents’ confidence in and ability to perform bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval in an infant airway mannequin.
      • Although involves human medical residency, principles are applicable to veterinary medical residencies.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Kishore, Thekke Adiyat ; Beddingfield, Richard; Holden, Timothy; Shen, Yunhe; Reihsen, Troy and Sweet, Robert M. 2009. “Task deconstruction facilitates acquisition of transurethral resection of prostate skills on a virtual reality trainer.” Journal of Endourology 23(4):665-668.
      • For the acquisition of transurethral resection skills, task deconstruction is superior to full-task training alone, in training novices on the virtual reality TURP trainer. Such a study provides more validity evidence to the unique value of simulation in the urology minimally invasive curriculum.
      • Although is for advanced training in the human medical field, the principles are applicable to veterinary surgical training.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Lee, Sun and Coppersmith, Ward J. 1983. “A microvascular surgical practice disc for beginners.” Microsurgery 4(1):67-69.
    • Leighton, Barbara L. 1989. “A greengrocer’s model of the epidural space.” Anesthesiology 70(2):368-369.
      • Discusses design of simple simulator for cerebrospinal punctures. Although aimed at human medical residencies, principles are applicable to veterinary medical residencies.
    • Leopold, Seth S.; Morgan, Hannah D.; Kadel, Nancy J.; Gardner, Gregory C.; Schaad, Douglas C. and Wolf, Fredric M. 2005. “Impact of educational intervention on confidence and competence in the performance of a simple surgical task.” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume 87(5):1031-1037.
      • Although involved graduate doctors of human medicine, the principles might apply to veterinary medical residency situations.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Ost, David; DeRosiers, Andrew; Britt, E. James; Fein, Alan N.; Lesser, Martin L. and Mehta, Atul C. 2001. “Assessment of a bronchoscopy simulator.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 164(12):2248-2255.
      • Training new fellows on the bronchoscopy simulator leads to more rapid acquisition of bronchoscopy expertise compared with conventional training methods. This technology has the potential to facilitate bronchoscopy training and to improve objective evaluations of bronchoscopy skills.
    • Pandey, Suresh K.; Werner, Liliana; Escobar-Gomez, Marcela; Visessook, Nithi; Peng, Qun and Apple, David J. 2000. “Creating cataracts of varying hardness to practice extracapsular cataract extraction and phacoemulsification.” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 26(3):322-329.
      • They describe a technique to make the lens harder (to simulate aging) in human postmortem eyes which are then used for practicing lensectomies. A similar approach could be used for eyes taken from veterinary patients who have died.
    • Pandey, Suresh K.; Werner, Liliana; Vasavada, Abhay R. and Apple, David J. 2000. “Induction of cataracts of varying degrees of hardness in human eyes obtained postmortem for cataract surgeon training.” American Journal of Ophthalmology 129(4):557-558.
      • They describe a technique to make the lens harder (to simulate aging) in human postmortem eyes which are then used for practicing lensectomies. A similar approach could be used for eyes taken from veterinary patients who have died.
    • Perry, Richard E. 2009. “Laying the foundation of surgical skills for trainees (Residents).” ANZ Journal of Surgery 79(3):122-126.
      • The skills laboratory offers an opportunity to better prepare residents for their clinical rotations and to accelerate their clinical effectiveness.
      • Although is for human medical residency programs, principles are applicable to veterinary medical residencies.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Raj, Diana; Williamson, Roy M.; Young, David and Russell, Douglas. 2013. “A simple epidural simulator: A blinded study assessing the ‘feel’ of loss of resistance in four fruits.” European Journal of Anaesthesiology 30(7):405-408.
      • The banana is a cheap and easily available training tool to introduce novice anaesthetists to the feel of loss of resistance, which is best experienced before the first insertion of an epidural in a patient.
      • Although was for human medical residents and graduates, the principles are applicable to veterinary medical residencies and similar.
      • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
    • Ramasastry, Sai; Narayanan, Krishna and Angel, Michael F. 1985. “A simple and inexpensive device for microvascular training.” Annals of Plastic Surgery 14(5):462-464.
      • They used Parafilm® and plastic vials.
    • Remie, René. 2001. “The PVC-Rat and other alternatives in microsurgical training.” Lab Animal 30(9):48-52.
    • Ristolainen, Asko; Colucci, Gianluca and Kruusmaa, Maarja. 2013. “A phantom pig abdomen as an alternative for testing robotic surgical systems: Our experience.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 41(5):359-367.
      • Although developed for testing surgical apparatus, could also be used for training.
      • The phantom pig abdomen was developed from computed tomography scans by using affordable materials…The phantom pig abdomen has proven to be a realistic tool, with the potential to reduce the cost and time-frame of the experiments.
    • Schöffl, Harald; Froschauer, Stefan M.; Dunst, Karin M.; Hager, Dietmar; Kwasny, Oskar and Huemer, Georg M. 2008. “Strategies for the reduction of live animal use in microsurgical training and education.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 36(2):153-160.
      • Thus, it is currently possible to provide excellent and in-depth training in microsurgical techniques, even when the number of live animals used is reduced to a minimum. With these new and innovative techniques, trainees are able to learn and prepare themselves for the clinical situation, with the sacrifice of considerably fewer laboratory animals than would have occurred previously.
    • Senior, Michael A.; Southern, Stephen J. and Majumder, Sanjib. 2001. “Microvascular simulator – a device for micro-anastomosis training.” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 83(5):358-360.
      • They used a microvascular simulator and blood vessels collected from human placentas (and other sources).
    • Szinicz, Gerhard; Beller, Siegfried; Zerz, Andreas and Bodner, Winfried. 1994. “Die Pulsierende Organ-Perfusion als Möglichkeit zur Reduktion von Tierversuchen in der Ausbildung in minimal invasiven Operationstechniken.” ALTEX 11(1):40-43.
      • English title: The Pulsatile Organ Perfusion – a chance to reduce animal experiments in minimally invasive surgery training
    • Tapia-Araya, Angelo E.; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Enciso, Silvia; Pérez-Duarte, Francisco J.; Martin-Portugués, Idoia Díaz-Güemes; Fresno-Bermejo, Laura and Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M. 2016. “Assessment of laparoscopic skills in veterinarians using a canine laparoscopic simulator.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(1):71-79.
      • The CLS and its training program demonstrated content and construct validity, supporting the suitability of the simulator for training and teaching and its ability to distinguish the degree of experience in laparoscopic surgery among veterinarians. In addition, face validity showed that the veterinarians fully accepted the CLS’s usefulness for learning basic laparoscopic skills.
    • Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Usón-Casaús, Jesús M.; Pérez-Merino, Eva M.; Soria-Gálvez, Federico; Morcillo, Esther; Enciso, Silvia and Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M. 2014. “Validation of a realistic simulator for veterinary gastrointestinal endoscopy training.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 41(3):209-217.
      • This article reports on the face, content, and construct validity of a new realistic composite simulator (Simuldog) used to provide training in canine gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy. The basic endoscopic procedures performed on the simulator were esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), gastric biopsy (GB), and gastric foreign body removal (FBR). … Simuldog is the first validated model specifically developed to be used as a training tool for endoscopy techniques in small animals.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Tapia-Araya, Angelo E.; Díaz-Güemes Martin-Portugués, Idoia and Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M. 2014. “Development and evaluation of a canine laparoscopic simulator for veterinary clinical training.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 41(3):218-224.
      • The Canine Laparoscopic Simulator (CLS) for laparoscopic training was developed based on the working and optical space obtained from computed tomography (CT) scan images of three Beagle dogs. … They perceived it to be a good training tool, and these results suggest that CLS is an engaging tool for education but still has some limitations inherent in training boxes. Further studies would be needed to establish the validity of training programs performed in the CLS.
    • Weidenthal, Daniel T. 1987. “The use of a model eye to gain endophotocoagulation skills.” Archives of Ophthalmology 105(8):1020.
      • Discusses use of the MIRA practice eye for developing dexterity in preparing for endophotocoagulation.
    • Whitacre, Marc M. and Mainster, Martin A. 1987. “Photographic slides for teaching laser photocoagulation.” American Journal of Ophthalmology 103(4):590-591.
      • Standard 35 mm slides (the material, not the pictures) were used to teach laser burn methods.
      • Residents are considered ready to begin performing panretinal photocoagulation under strict staff supervision when they have satisfactorily completed the practice slide set and demonstrated their understanding of the use of photocoagulators and wide-angle inverted image ophthalmoscopic contact lenses.
      • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
    • Zeimer, Ran C. and Mori, Marek T. 1988. “An interactive model eye for use with ophthalmic instruments.” Archives of Ophthalmology 106(1):126-127.
      • Discusses use of an artificial eye for developing dexterity in advanced ophthalmic surgical procedures.

    Updated 2017-12-05