Surgery

These are a few examples of the types of things that can provide for a rich and effective training in the art of surgery. Many of these are simulators; these can also be considered part of skills development and may be listed in that section. Although these have limitations (’tissue’ handling is not similar to the real thing; there is no realistic bleeding, something which often intimidates the novice), they have been shown (see citations in the literature section below) to be effective in increasing a person’s dexterity and some can familiarize the person with the anatomical aspects of a particular surgical procedure. Others involve using cadavers, which provide for a somewhat more realistic experience, or using live animals who will benefit from the surgery such as patients in the operating theater or those being sterilized as part of an animal shelter program. The latter is an important method of providing live animal experience and training in many core skills needed to perform surgery. The experience at many institutions using this has been positive for students and animals alike (e.g. see Clevenger & Kass, 2003; Freeman et al, 2013; Freeman et al, 2014; Kennedy et al, 2011; Smeak, 2007; Snowden et al, 2008; Spindel et al, 2008).

Following the list of specific alternatives, there is a section comprising literature that either explains or evaluates the alternatives or provides additional information on the subject of surgical instruction.

If you are aware of other examples you believe to be important to include here, please send the information to HEVM for consideration.

SynDaver Surgical Canine

SynDaver Surgical Canine
SynDaver Surgical Canine
  • From Web site: The SynDaver Synthetic Canine is a futuristic animal model designed to replace live animals and animal cadavers in veterinary surgical training. Based on 20+ years of SynDaver research, this model is made from water, fiber and salt. She is a life saver, but she is not alive. She breathes and bleeds just like a real dog. She has individual muscles, bones, and organs – and can be operated on repeatedly without risking a live animal.
  • Available from SynDaver Labs.

Body Wall

DASIE™ Dog Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercise

DASIE

SimSpay

Langebæk et al 2015 SimSpay
    • This is a simple, easily and economically built simulator that can provide some of the essential psychomotor skills necessary for this surgery.
    • Described and evaluated in Langebæk et al, 2015.

Dog abdomen, ovariohysterectomy simulator

University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: abdominal wall University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: abdominal contents University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science OHE simulator: reproductive tract
    • This appears to be an effective means of preparing the student for ovariohysterectomy in the living animal.
    • Developed by University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Sydney, Australia with Studio Kite; see news item or article by Woon for more information.

TheMOOSE, ovariohysterectomy simulator

TheMOOSE spay model

Spay Training Manikin (ovariohysterectomy)

Vet Effects Spay Training Manikin Vet Effects Spay Training Manikin
    • From Website: The manikin allows the student to recreate a lifelike, step by step training, from incision to sutures.
    • Produced by Vet Effects Incorporated.

Manikin – Spay Dog (ovariohysterectomy)

Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Spay Dog
    • From Website: The Spay Manikin was designed by Paws 2 Claws to be hands on training aid in learning the surgical procedures and techniques of spaying a dog, from intubation to the final sutures.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Kattrappen simulator for feline ovariohysterectomy

Kattrappen simulator by Badman et al
    • This appears to be an effective means of preparing the student for ovariohysterectomy in the living animal.
    • Developed by veterinarians in Sweden; see article for more information.

Neuter Training Manikin (castration)

Vet Effects Neuter Training Manikin Vet Effects Neuter Training Manikin
    • From Website: The manikin allows the student to recreate a lifelike, step by step training, from incision to sutures.
    • Produced by Vet Effects Incorporated.

Manikin – Neuter Dog (castration)

Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog Paws 2 Claws™ Manikin - Neuter Dog
    • From Website: The Neuter Manikin was designed by Paws 2 Claws to be hands on training aid in learning the surgical procedures and techniques of neutering a dog, from intubation to the final sutures.
    • Available through Paws 2 Claws™.
    • You can borrow this from Animalearn

Canine Ovariohysterectomy (Spay) Model

RescueCritters Canine Ovariohysterectomy (Spay) Model RescueCritters Canine Ovariohysterectomy (Spay) Model RescueCritters Canine Ovariohysterectomy (Spay) Model RescueCritters Canine Ovariohysterectomy (Spay) Model

Canine Orchiectomy (Neuter) Model

RescueCritters Canine Orchiectomy (Neuter) Model RescueCritters Canine Orchiectomy (Neuter) Model RescueCritters Canine Orchiectomy (Neuter) Model RescueCritters Canine Orchiectomy (Neuter) Model RescueCritters Canine Orchiectomy (Neuter) Model

Laparotomy Model

Simulab Laparotomy Model Simulab Laparotomy Model Simulab Laparotomy Model
    • From Website: The laparotomy model simulates a partial abdomen and includes skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, preperitoneal fat, and peritoneum.
    • Produced by Simulab Corporation.

Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model

RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model RescueCritters Louie K9 Tracheostomy Model

Training model for small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy

Thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy training model by Williamson, et al
    • By Williamson & Fio Rito, 2014: A small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy model has been developed, that allows repetitive practice in a safe, standardised environment. … Student feedback indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the model and the laboratory experience, high perceived value of the case studies in improving learning, and increased confidence to perform the procedures under supervision. This model can replace the use of live animals while students are practising these procedures, improving their technique, and learning the appropriate safeguards used to prevent injuries such as pulmonary trauma.
    • See Williamson, 2014 for critical evaluation.

Columbia Dentoform® Corporation

Cat skull with teeth and gingiva

Catus Exemplar Dentoform Articulated Clear Feline model with natural root teeth and gingival facings

Dog skull with teeth and gingiva

Canis Exemplar Dentoform Articulated Clear Canine Model with natural root teeth and gingival facings

    • They develop and provide material for dentistry training.
    • From Web site: Make it possible to practice every aspect of dentistry, including tooth extractions, periodontic and prosthodontic techniques, cavity preparation and routine cleanings

Sawbones® veterinary models for surgery

  • They develop and provide material for surgery training, including orthopedics, intestinal anastomosis, arthroscopy, endoscopy.

SYNBONE AG veterinary models for orthopedic surgery

  • They develop and provide material for orthopedic surgery training for cats, dogs and horses.

HSVMA Educational Memorial Programs

  • Information on developing a willed-body (ethically sourced cadaver) program

The following includes literature cited above or which is relevant to the development of various skills related to surgery, including outcome assessment. The titles are linked either to a publicly available copy of the document or to a digital object identifier. In the latter case, information is provided about how to obtain a copy from other sources or from HEVM if to be used only for educational purposes.

  • Aboud, Emad; Suarez, Carlos Ernesto; Al-Mefty, Ossama and Yasargil, M. Gazi. 2004. “New alternative to animal models for surgical training.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 32(suppl 1):501-507.
    • We developed a new model utilising human cadavers that can replace the use of live anaesthetised animals for surgical training. The vessels in a cadaveric specimen were connected to artificial blood reservoirs. … This method provides a condition that simulates live surgery in terms of bleeding, pulsation and liquid filling of the vascular tree. It is an excellent alternative model and can be applied to the whole cadaver or to a particular cadaveric specimen (head, arm, leg) or to an isolated organ. It is distinctive and of a great practical value for training in a wide range of surgical procedures, Utilising this technique could forever eliminate the use of live anaesthetised animals for surgical training.
    • This method can also be used for ethically-sourced non-human animal cadavers.
  • Anwar, Mohammad; Renner, Norrie and Harris, Malcolm. 1989. “A simple teaching model for mucoperiosteal flaps and suturing techniques.” British Dental Journal 166(2):38.
    • Although this is concerning human dental procedures, the principles should apply to similar veterinary dental procedures.
  • Badman, Märit; Höglund, Katja and Höglund, Odd V. 2016. “Student perceptions of the use of a laser pointer for intra-operative guidance in feline castration.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(2):222-224.
    • This study showed that laser pointers enhanced verbal guidance given to students during surgery. The suggested mechanism of explanation is that the technology enabled a more precise guidance of location and identification of anatomic structures.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • Badman, Märit; Tullberg, Marja; Höglund, Odd V. and Hagman, Ragnvi. 2016. “Veterinary student confidence after practicing with a new surgical training model for feline ovariohysterectomy.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(4):427-433.
    • The results showed that the students rated their confidence level higher after performing feline OHE if they had practiced with the [surgical training model] before surgery. Voluntary written comments revealed that live surgery as a learning situation could have a very negative emotional impact on some students.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Bauer, M.S.; Glickman, N.; Glickman, L.; Toombs, J.P. and Bill, P. 1992. “Evaluation of the effectiveness of a cadaver laboratory during a 4th-year veterinary surgery rotation.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 19(3):77-84.
    • In conclusion, the cadaver laboratory as a teaching tool was more effective when used by a particular instructor. … Learning outcomes as measured by grades were not significantly influenced by any variable in our study.
  • Bowlt, K.L.; Murray, J.K.; Herbert, G.L.; Delisser, P.; Ford-Fennah, V.; Murrell, J. and Friend, E.J. 2011. “Evaluation of the expectations, learning and competencies of surgical skills by undergraduate veterinary students performing canine ovariohysterectomies.” The Journal of Small Animal Practice 52(11):587-594.
  • Buyukmihci, Nedim C. 2016. “Non-violence in Surgical Training.” 10 pp.
    • A ‘white paper’ discussing the issue of surgical training in veterinary medical school and providing the student with practical and philosophical arguments to use when faced with a surgical instruction curriculum that is based on forcing all students to harm and kill animals
  • Carpenter, Larry G.; Piermattei, Donald L.; Salman, Mowafak D.; Orton, E. Christopher; Nelson, A. Wendell; Smeak, Daniel D.; Jennings, Paul B. and Taylor, Robert A. 1991. “A comparison of surgical training with live anesthetized dogs and cadavers.” Veterinary Surgery 20(6):373-378.
    • The authors compared the results of students learning surgery using live animals or cadavers. They found: No statistically significant differences could be detected between the two groups [of students, with respect to skill, outcome].
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM.
  • Carroll, Hillary S.; Lucia, Tomasina A.; Farnsworth, Chelsea H.; Hinckley, Michael M.; Zeugschmidt, Eryn L. and Cary, Julie A.. 2016. “Development of an optional clinical skills laboratory for surgical skills training of veterinary students.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 248(6):624-628.
    • During each OCSL session, a variety of surgical training models and cadavers were available for students to practice with. Simple models for students to practice suturing, pedicle ligation, and IV catheter placement were made from surplus hospital stock and inexpensive materials readily available from hardware and craft stores. In addition, 5 to 7 whole or prosected cadavers were typically available for student use during each session. Large animal cadavers were primarily obtained through donation to the veterinary teaching hospital. Canine and feline cadavers were obtained through the CVM’s contract with animal control agencies in Washington state under which animals judged to be unadoptable by individual animal control agencies were euthanized at the agencies in accordance with AVMA and institutional animal care and use guidelines and transported to WSU CVM fresh-frozen. Fresh cadavers from other teaching laboratories were also used when available. All cadaver use adhered to AVMA and institutional animal care and use guidelines for humane use of animals. No animals were euthanized specifically for use in the OCSL.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • Clanton, Jesse; Gardner, Aimee; Cheung, Maureen; Mellert, Logan; Evancho-Chapman, Michelle and George, Richard L. 2014. “The relationship between confidence and competence in the development of surgical skills.” Journal of Surgical Education 71(3):405-412.
    • Although involves human medical school training, the principles are applicable to veterinary medical school.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • Clevenger, Jaime and Kass, Philip H. 2003. “Determinants of adoption and euthanasia of shelter dogs spayed or neutered in the University of California veterinary student surgery program compared to other shelter dogs.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 30(4):372-378.
    • At the University of California, Davis (UCD), shelter dogs are neutered [castration or spay] by veterinary students and then returned to the shelter for adoption. … In this study, pre-adoption neutering increased adoptions without increasing the probability of medical or behavioral euthanasia.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • DeYoung, David J. and Richardson, Daniel C. 1987. “Teaching the principles of internal fixation of fractures with plastic bone models.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 14(1):30-31.
    • Based on our past experience in numerous live animal fracture fixation laboratories, it is our opinion that the students’ self-confidence is greatly increased after working with the plastic models. Their motor skills and comprehension of the biomechanical principles of fracture fixation and implant application are superior to those resulting from the use of live animal laboratories only.
  • Fahie, Maria; Cloke, Amanda; Lagman, Minette; Levi, Ohad and Schmidt, Peggy. 2016. “Training veterinary students to perform ovariectomy using theMOOSE Spay Model with traditional method versus the Dowling Spay Retractor.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(2):176-183.
    • This study endeavored to compare two methods of teaching OVE on a model based on assessment of procedure time and skill performance scores.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Fransson, Boel A. and Ragle, Claude A. 2010. “Assessment of laparoscopic skills before and after simulation training with a canine abdominal model.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 236(10):1079-1084.
    • The authors found that …training with a canine abdominal model could increase skills scores for individuals without previous laparoscopic experience.
  • Freeman, Lynetta J.; Ferguson, Nancy; Litster, Annette and Arighi, Mimi. 2013. “Service learning: Priority 4 Paws mobile surgical service for shelter animals.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 40(4):389-396.
    • Performing spays and neuters at a humane society is a unique form of service learning in which students develop greater confidence in performing anesthesia and surgery as well as a better understanding of the scope of pet homelessness. … The Priority 4 Paws program is an example of an integrated, community-based service-learning opportunity that not only helps to improve the surgical skills of veterinary students but also helps to meet an identified community need.
  • Freeman, Lynetta J.; Huse, David; Lee, Rebecca; Inoue, Tomo; Weil, Ann B. and Constable, Peter D. 2014. “Teaching veterinary anesthesia and surgery: The impact of instructor availability on anesthesia, operative, and recovery times in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy or castration.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 41(4):390-399.
    • Using dedicated instructors to teach OVH and castration to third-year veterinary students decreased overall anesthesia time by 36 to 49 minutes for OVH and 29 to 32 minutes for castration. A teaching model of dedicated instructors requires excellent coordination between surgeons and anesthesiologists to ensure that a similar number of animals can undergo procedures in the time allotted for teaching.
  • Goff, Barbara A.; Lentz, Gretchen M.; Lee, David; Fenner, Dee; Morris, Jamie and Mandel, Lynn S. 2001. “Development of a bench station objective structured assessment of technical skills.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 98(3):412-416.
    • The authors demonstrated that inanimate models for assessing the skills of surgeons in the field of human gynecology and obstetrics were more reliable as to outcome as well as substantially more economical.
  • Gopinath, Deepa; McGreevy, Paul D.; Zuber, Richard M.; Klupiec, Corinna; Baguley, John and Barrs, Vanessa R. 2012. “Developments in undergraduate teaching of small-animal soft-tissue surgical skills at the University of Sydney.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 39(1):21-29.
    • OHE [ovariohysterectomy] is the ideal procedure to teach basic surgical skills such as instrument and suture handling, hemostasis, and gentle tissue handling. … In the last decade, veterinary teaching institutions world-wide have increasingly recognized that the ability to perform any surgical procedure directly reflects the student’s ability to perform a collection of individual skills combined with their possession of sound scientific knowledge.
    • Looking to the future, we aim to further incorporate surgical models and simulators, such as DASIE and the newly developed OSM [ovariohysterectomy simulator model], as significant tools for the teaching of basic surgical skills. The earlier implementation of these may be desirable to achieve greater vertical integration, concurrent with the teaching of veterinary anatomy and physiology. A clinical skills laboratory is being established to provide fourth-year students with opportunities to use surgical models and simulators as needed.
  • Greenfield, Cathy L.; Johnson, Ann L.; Arends, Mark W. and Wroblewski, Andrzej J. 1993. “Development of parenchymal abdominal organ models for use in teaching veterinary soft tissue surgery.” Veterinary Surgery 22(5):357-362.
    • Models of the canine spleen, kidney, and liver were made from soft plastic to simulate the organs of the live animal as closely as possible in appearance and tissue handling properties. Each organ model was independently evaluated by five small animal surgeons who performed several common surgical procedures on each model. All models had a realistic appearance and, with the exception of one tissue handling problem with the kidney model, and one with the liver model, tissue handling properties of the models were comparable to those of the organs in the live animal. All models were useful for teaching each of the procedures evaluated.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Greenfield, C.L.; Johnson, A.L.; Smith, C.W.; Marretta, S.M.; Farmer, J.A. and Klippert, L. 1994. “Integrating alternative models into the existing surgical curriculum.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 21(1):23-27.
    • Discusses the modification of the surgical training curriculum at the University of Illinois to meet animal welfare and student conscience concerns. At the time of publication, the program met with approval by faculty and students and was stated to be still evolving.
    • Over the next few years, our surgical laboratory curriculum will continue to evolve to the point of having no nonsurvival surgical laboratories. The elective neutering procedures on humane shelter animals will be used for all instruction of live-animal surgery and postoperative patient care during the 3rd-year surgical laboratories.
  • Greenfield, Cathy L.; Johnson, Ann L.; Schaeffer, David J. and Hungerford, Laura L. 1995. “Comparison of surgical skills of veterinary students trained using models or live animals.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206(12):1840-1845.
    • The authors found that there was no significant difference between traditionally trained students for the most part.
  • Griffon, Dominique J.; Cronin, Paul; Kirby, Barbara and Cottrell, David F. 2000. “Evaluation of a hemostasis model for teaching ovariohysterectomy in veterinary surgery.” Veterinary Surgery 29(4):309-316.
    • The authors compared the skills level of students using a model versus cadavers. They found that: The model was more effective than cadavers in teaching basic surgical skills and ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • Holmberg, D.L.; Cockshutt, J.R. and Basher, A.W.P. 1993. “Use of a dog abdominal surrogate for teaching surgery.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 20(2):61-62.
  • Howe, Lisa M. and Slater, Margaret R. 1997. “Student assessment of the educational benefits of a prepubertal gonadectomy program (preliminary findings).” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 24(1):12-17.
    • Results of a student questionnaire indicate that the addition of these programs enhances their education experience in several ways including: 1) refinement of surgical skills in certain areas including gentle tissue handling and hand-eye coordination; 2) exposure and practice in perioperative and anesthetic management of pediatric patients; 3) increased awareness of the functions, goals, and activities of humane organizations; and 4) increased understanding of the pet overpopulation problem and the unique role of the veterinarian in combating this problem.
  • Howe, Lisa M.; Boothe, Harry W.; August, John R.; Bice, Kathy L. and Medicus, Karen L. 1998. “Using community-based service learning projects to improve surgical instruction.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 25(2):12-15.
    • Recently, the service learning program has been expanded to support the laboratory portion of a required third-year surgery course. The mechanics of both the fourth- and third-year service learning projects are described in detail in this article. Additionally, the key components of successful service learning programs are discussed, as are the benefits derived from the service learning projects at Texas A&M University.
  • Johnson, Ann L. and Farmer, James A. 1989. “Evaluation of traditional and alternative models in psychomotor laboratories for veterinary surgery.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 16(1):11-14.
    • The use of large and in some cases unrealistic models were superior to live animals for demonstrating basic concepts and allowing the students to gain basic skills. … Students readily accepted alternative models as long as clinical relevance had been demonstrated by the instructor. … Basic psychomotor skills that are essential to the surgeon can be learned with inanimate models. In addition, motor proficiency can be achieved with repetition on models, making the use of models a superior alternative to live animals for learning basic motor skills.
  • Johnson, Ann L. and Farmer, James A. 1990. “Teaching veterinary surgery in the operating room.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 17(1):10-12.
  • Johnson, A.L.; Harari, J.; Lincoln, J.; Farmer, J.A. and Korvick, D. 1990. “Bone models of pathological conditions used for teaching veterinary orthopedic surgery.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 17(1):13-15.
    • Bone models simulating radius curvus and a femoral nonunion were developed. The models were used successfully in senior student orthopedic surgery rotations and in a continuing education laboratory. The models were ideal for demonstrating and teaching preoperative planning, operative principles and procedures, and postoperative results of corrective osteotomies to veterinary students, interns, residents, practitioners, and clients.
  • Kennedy, Katie C.; Tamburello, Kathereen R. and Hardie, Robert J. 2011. “Peri-operative morbidity associated with ovariohysterectomy performed as part of a third-year veterinary surgical-training program.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 38(4):408-413.
    • Based on the low rate of major and, to a lesser extent, minor complications reported in the present study and considering the relatively low level of intervention and assistance required of faculty during the lab sessions, it would appear that students in this program are reasonably well prepared for the live-animal OVH procedure. However, the extent to which the complication rate for one particular procedure actually correlates with overall surgical competency is not known. Perhaps an even more important question to consider is whether or not OVH does actually involve the spectrum of psychomotor skills necessary to be proficient in basic surgical procedures. In this institution, we use the OVH as a common procedure from which to teach multiple basic surgical principles and, in this environment, the procedure acts as both a surrogate for other surgical procedures and a sentinel for highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of novice surgeons, allowing us to continually improve the fundamental training within the confines of an already overcrowded curriculum. Currently, there is no universal standard in surgical training or agreement as to which surgical skills should make up the core clinical competencies and, until such time, course coordinators of other institutions are encouraged to conduct similar studies so that outcomes can be compared and best practices can be shared as we work toward determining the ideal level and methods of training necessary for instilling core surgical competencies.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Langebæk, Rikke; Toft, Nils and Eriksen, Thomas. 2015. “The SimSpay—Student perceptions of a low-cost build-it-yourself model for novice training of surgical skills in canine ovariohysterectomy.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 42(2):166-171.
    • In the Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences of the University of Copenhagen, a low-cost build-it-yourself model, the SimSpay, was developed for novice training of surgical skills in canine ovariohysterectomy. The model did not require the use of trained technical staff or costly, hard-to-source supplies. The SimSpay was developed and implemented in the clinical veterinary curriculum in 2013. … By increasing students’ perceived levels of competence, confidence, and anatomic knowledge, the low-fidelity SimSpay is a useful, low-cost learning tool for teaching ovariohysterectomy.
  • Lencioni, Rachael D.; Ragle, Claude A.; Kinser, Mathew L.; Coffey, Todd and Fransson, Boel A. 2017. “Effect of simulator orientation during skills training on performance of basic laparoscopic tasks by veterinary students.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 251(10):1196-1201.
    • Because veterinary surgeons may be required to treat patients in various positions, development of laparoscopic training models to simulate the vertical plane is recommended.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • Levi, Ohad; Kass, Philip H.; Lee, Lyon Y.; Cantrell, Valerie M.; Clark, David E. and Griffon, Dominique J. 2015. “Comparison of the ability of veterinary medical students to perform laparoscopic versus conventional open ovariectomy on live dogs.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 247(11):1279-1288.
    • All training was done using inanimate skills development models or simulators followed by performing surgery on dogs who were going to be adopted from a shelter
    • The training programs were effective in improving student confidence and skills in laparoscopic ovariectomy. Results of this study suggested that veterinary medical students, with assistance from an instructor, may be taught to perform laparoscopic ovariectomies with performance equivalent to that for students performing open ovariectomies.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Levi, Ohad; Michelotti, Kurt; Schmidt, Peggy; Lagman, Minette; Fahie, Maria and Griffon, Dominique. 2016. “Comparison between training models to teach veterinary medical students basic laparoscopic surgery skills.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 43(1):80-87.
    • In conclusion, the low-cost tablet trainer and the more expensive box trainer were similarly effective in preparing pre-clinical veterinary students to perform basic laparoscopic skills on a model.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Martinsen, Siri and Jukes, Nick. 2007. “Ethically sourced animal cadavers and tissue: Considerations for education and training.” Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation 14:265-268.
    • Discusses the ethical and practical aspects of using cadavers, particularly in veterinary medical anatomy and surgical training.
  • Millard, Heather A. Towle; Millard, Ralph P.; Constable, Peter D. and Freeman, Lyn J. 2014. “Relationships among video gaming proficiency and spatial orientation, laparoscopic, and traditional surgical skills of third-year veterinary students.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 244(3):357-362.
    • Results of this study indicated video game performance of third-year veterinary students was predictive of laparoscopic but not traditional surgical skills, suggesting that laparoscopic performance may be improved with video gaming experience.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Pavletic, Michael M.; Schwartz, Anthony; Berg, John and Knapp, Deirdre. 1994. “An assessment of the outcome of the alternative medical and surgical laboratory program at Tufts University.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205(1):97-100.
    • The authors evaluated student learning for various diagnostic and surgical procedures using cadavers. They found: …use of cadavers during the third-year laboratory program, when supplemented with additional clinical training during the fourth year, can provide training comparable to that provided in a conventional laboratory program.
  • Romero, Camilo; Mendoza, Germán D.; Martínez, José Antonio; Hernández, Pedro A.; Magallón, Elena and del Carmen García, Adelfa. 2013. “Evaluation of psychomotor skills acquired for surgery by veterinary students using biological simulators.” Interciencia 38(5):377-381.
    • The authors compared students learning the following: ligature, synthetic skin, enterotomy, enterectomy, gastrostomy, cystotomy, endotracheal tube placement, permanent intravenous catheter. They used organs from animals killed at a slaughterhouse. Although this type of alternative would be objectionable to many, the results demonstrated that the students could acquire skills from non-living tissue. This adds additional support to cadaver-based training (with the hope that the cadavers would be ethically-sourced).
  • Scalese, Ross J. and Issenberg, Barry. 2005. “Effective use of simulations for the teaching and acquisition of veterinary professional and clinical skills.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 32(4):461-467.
  • Silva, R.M.G.; Matera, J.M. and Ribeiro, A.A.C.M. 2007. “New alternative methods to teach surgical techniques for veterinary medicine students despite the absence of living animals. Is that an academic paradox?” Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 36(3):220-224.
    • Discusses use of a better method of preserving cadavers for use in surgery.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Smeak, Daniel D. 2007. “Teaching surgery to the veterinary novice: The Ohio State University experience.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 34(5):620-627.
    • The author describes the positive experience at The Ohio State University in doing away with terminal surgery labs.
      • This article describes a successful and ethical surgical training program used at the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine (OSU-CVM). This program provides early exposure to skills training using surgical simulators and auto-tutorials, ensures that basic skills are mastered before students are exposed to cadaver practice, and requires application of model-based skills to cadavers, with final matriculation to intensive exposure to multiple live-animal procedures via a collaborative surgery program with a local shelter.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • Smeak, Daniel D. 2008. “Teaching veterinary students using shelter animals.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 35(1):26-30.
    • This article examines the clinical training available to veterinary students through a variety of collaborative shelter models. Benefits and potential problems related to initiating a collaborative shelter clinical training program are reviewed. Collaborative efforts between animal shelters and veterinary schools can provide crucial opportunities for outreach teaching initiatives, particularly for teaching medical and surgical skills.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM
  • Smeak, Daniel D.; Hill, Lawrence N.; Beck, Marian L.; Shaffer, C. Allen and Birchard, Stephen J. 1994. “Evaluation of an autotutorial-simulator program for instruction of hollow organ closure.” Veterinary Surgery 23(6):519-528.
    • This AT [autotutorial]/simulator program evidently does not significantly influence students overall gastrotomy closure technique versus traditional instruction methods. Several factors may help explain these results. The hollow organ model did not satisfactorily simulate live stomach tissue; the material was more fragile and stiff and suture cut-out was a problem even with appropriate suture tension and technique. Despite these obstacles, however, the model combined with AT instruction was effective for teaching several important aspects of gastrotomy closure, including needle placement. instrument usage, proper tissue inversion, and methods to minimize instrument handling of tissue.
  • Snowden, Karen; Bice, Kathryn; Craig, Tom; Howe, Lisa; Jarrett, Melissa; Jeter, Elizabeth; Kochevar, Deborah; Simpson, R. Bruce; Stickney, Mark; Wesp, Ashley; Wolf, Alice M. and Zoran, Debra. 2008. “Vertically integrated educational collaboration between a college of veterinary medicine and a non-profit animal shelter.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 35(4):637-640.
    • The program represents a creative approach to veterinary training that conscientiously uses animal resources in a positive fashion. We believe that this is a successful partnership between a state-supported veterinary college and a non-profit shelter that benefits both agencies. We encourage other veterinary colleges to explore similar partnership opportunities to provide optimal training for professional students while using animal resources efficiently.
    • Obtain a copy from: ResearchGate or HEVM
  • Spindel, Miranda E.; MacPhail, Catriona M.; Hackett, Timothy B.; Egger, Erick L.; Palmer, Ross H.; Mama, Khursheed R.; Lee, David E.; Wilkerson, Nicole and Lappin, Michael R. 2008. “A lifesaving model: Teaching advanced procedures on shelter animals in a tertiary care facility.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 35(4):553-558.
    • The results suggest that collaboration between a tertiary-care facility and a humane shelter can be used successfully to teach advanced procedures and to save homeless animals. The project demonstrated that linking a veterinary teaching hospital’s resources to a humane shelter’s needs did not financially affect either institution. It is hoped that such a program might be used as a model and be perpetuated in other communities.
  • Tefera, Melaku. 2011. “Surgical dummy: a surrogate to live animal in teaching veterinary surgery.” Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 15(2):1-10.
    • The author reported on using dead animal organs or bodies in order to prepare the students for live animal surgery on patients. In some cases, organs from animals killed at a slaughterhouse were used. Although this type of alternative would be objectionable to many, the results demonstrated that the students could acquire skills from non-living tissue. This adds additional support to cadaver-based training (with the hope that the cadavers would be ethically-sourced).
  • White, Karl K.; Wheaton, Lynn G. and Greene, Stephen A. 1992. “Curriculum change related to live animal use: A four-year surgical curriculum.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 19(1):6-10.
    • The authors describe their program at that time (prior to 1992), which involved two modalities, one which involved traditional terminal animal labs and the other which used cadavers. They found: The small animal surgical faculty have noted that students from the alternative surgical laboratory program are more timid and hesitant the first time they incise living tissue. This hesitancy is only apparent on the first live tissue surgery. In all other segments of the 4th-year small animal surgery and anesthesia rotations, including patient care, the alternative students perform on a par with the students from the standard laboratory experience.
  • Williamson, Julie A. 2014. “Construct validation of a small-animal thoracocentesis simulator.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 41(4):384-389.
  • Williamson, Julie A. and Fio Rito, Robin M. 2014. “Development of a training model for small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 42(3):201-205.
  • Woon, Siaw-Yean. 2011. “A veterinary student’s perspective on educational animal use and the potential for humane alternatives.” Altex Proceedings 1/12:377-385.
  • Yushchenko, Anya; Berreville, Olivier; Wright, Nick; White, Liz and Sullivan, Erika. 2011. “Elimination of live terminal surgeries in Canadian veterinary practice.” Altex Proceedings 1/12:395-397.
    • Discusses the elimination of terminal surgeries in the Veterinary Skills Training and Enhancement Program (VSTEP). The latter is a program at the Ontario Veterinary College for upgrading the skills of foreign-trained veterinarians living in Canada.
  • Zeugschmidt, Eryn L.; Farnsworth, Chelsea H.; Carroll, Hillary S.; Lucia, Tomasina A.; Hinckley, Michael M.; Gay, John M. and Cary, Julie A. 2016. “Effects of an optional clinical skills laboratory on surgical performance of third-year veterinary students.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 248(6):630-635.
    • Results suggested that attendance in the OCSL sessions was associated with improvements in surgical performance, as reflected in faster total surgery and incision closure times while performing an ovariohysterectomy during the third-year surgery course.
    • Obtain a copy from: HEVM

Updated 2017-12-04